International law governs the interactions between sovereign nations and international entities to manage their relationships and disputes on the global stage. It encompasses a wide range of issues, including human rights, environmental protection, trade, war crimes, and the conduct of war, aiming to ensure global peace, security, and cooperation. This legal domain primarily consists of treaties, agreements, and conventions voluntarily entered into by states, and customary practices.
International law operates in a decentralized system where no single, overarching authoritative body enforces the laws. Instead, enforcement often relies on cooperative mechanisms, reciprocal actions, and the overall desire of nations to maintain orderly and peaceful international relations. Various international institutions and courts, such as the United Nations and the International Court of Justice, play pivotal roles in facilitating dialogues, resolving disputes, and establishing legal norms at the international level.